pediatric orthopedics

7 lower limb positional variations
7 lower limb positional variationsConcerns regarding the appearance of a child’s lower extremities are a common reason for visits to the pediatrician and a frequent source of orthopedic referrals. The aim of this article is to provide guidance on the diagnosis and management of 7 common lower limb positional variations in children and adolescents.
Developmental dysplasia of the hipDevelopmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) refers to a spectrum of abnormalities that range in severity from mild instability to frank dislocation. The vast majority of clinical and anatomic hip abnormalities identified in early infancy resolve spontaneously. Left untreated, however, a hip that is persistently unstable and anatomically abnormal can lead to functional limitations, pain, and premature degenerative changes.