A healthy 12-year-old boy with eczema shows up at the office with an incredibly itchy rash on his legs that has exploded over the last 48 hours. He has a history of dry skin to which his mother regularly applies various moisturizers, including calendula oil.
A 4-month-old girl arrives at the clinic for a well-child visit. Her mother voices concerns about the infant’s poor weight gain, slow feeding habits, and physical delays such as head lag, poor grasp reflex, and rolling over.
After a cesarean delivery at 30 weeks, a 1430-gram premature female neonate was noted to have generalized thick, dark brown scale forming a tight membrane over her entire skin surface. Her mother was a healthy 19-year-old gravida 1 with normal prenatal screening ultrasound and laboratory studies. Family history did not reveal any congenital malformations or genetic disorders.
A 22-month-old African American boy born at 38 weeks by normal vaginal delivery presents to a local hospital from a private pediatric office for failure to thrive. He was seen by his pediatrician until aged 1 month but was lost to follow-up. His delay in walking prompted his mother to reestablish care at age 22 months.
A full-term male infant was born to a 33-year-old gravida 3, para 3 mother. The prenatal course was uncomplicated, without gestational diabetes; the mother received prenatal care at an out-of-state institution. At the delivery, however, the baby was notably macrosomic, with shoulder dystocia and perinatal distress requiring positive pressure ventilation.
An 11-year-old girl asks her pediatrician about an asymptomatic birthmark on her right thigh that drains clear to slightly bloody-tinged fluid occasionally when scratched. It has increased in size proportionally as she has grown.